NURS 6501 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.

Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.


To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

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By Day 3 of Week 1

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

Complete: Week 1 Discussion Due Week 1


A 16-year-old boy comes to clinic with chief complaint of sore throat for 3 days. Denies fever or chills. PMH negative for recurrent colds, influenza, ear infections or pneumonias. NKDA or food allergies. Physical exam reveals temp of 99.6 F, pulse 78 and regular with respirations of 18. HEENT normal with exception of reddened posterior pharynx with white exudate on tonsils that are enlarged to 3+. Positive anterior and posterior cervical adenopathy. Rapid strep test performed in office was positive. His HCP wrote a prescription for amoxicillin 500 mg po q 12 hours x 10 days disp #20. He took the first capsule when he got home and immediately complained of swelling of his tongue and lips, difficulty breathing with audible wheezing. 911 was called and he was taken to the hospital, where he received emergency treatment for his allergic reaction.


Response On Acute Tonsillitis

Acute tonsillitis is the inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsils extending to the adenoid and lingual tonsils. The most common cause of acute tonsillitis is group A streptococcus pyogens (Geißler, et al, 2017). Signs and symptoms of acute tonsillitis are fever, sore throat, foul breath, dysphagia, and tender cervical lymph nodes. This patient has acute tonsillitis because he has a fever, sore throat, reddened posterior pharynx with white exudates on tonsils that are enlarged.

There are genetic variations that make it harder for someone to fight streptococcus throat infections. These gene variations are associated with children who have recurrent tonsillitis (Bulut, et al, 2020). Tonsillitis develops when the pathogens infect the tonsils and elicit an inflammatory response. The inflammatory response causes swelling, erythema, fever, and pain. Hence, the symptoms the patient is presenting with are a result of the inflammatory response caused by the streptococcus.

The patient has a drug allergy reaction towards penicillin. This is because he complained of swelling of the tongue, lips, difficulty in breathing, and an audible wheeze shortly after administration of amoxicillin. According to Torres, et al, (2019), drug adverse reactions can be genetic.  Some genetic factors determine the body’s ability to metabolize and tolerate drugs.

The patient had a non-immune-mediated adverse drug reaction due to the pharmacological properties. The cells involved are the mast cells, T cells, and immunoglobins E IgE (Torres, et al, 2019). The reaction was a result of cytokine dysbalance, and mast cell hyperactivity.

Factors that influence adverse drug reactions are age, gender, multiple drugs, disease state, and history of adverse drug reaction or allergy (Torres, et al, 2019). History of adverse drug reactions would affect my response towards the patient because I would have interrogated more about the cause of the reaction and the medication given. Therefore, my treatment would have been different to avoid a drug reaction.


Bulut, F., Cumbul, A., & Safak, A. S. (2020). An analysis of the histomorphometric and clinical significance of mucosal biofilm in tonsil tissue of the children with a history of recurrent/chronic tonsillitis in both the mother and father. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology277(12), 3381-3389.orshoff, D. C. (2018). Adverse drug reactions. Anaesthesia73, 76-84.

Geißler, K., Markwart, R., Requardt, R. P., Weigel, C., Schubert, K., Scherag, A., … & Guntinas-Lichius, O. (2017). Functional characterization of T-cells from palatine tonsils in patients with chronic tonsillitis. PloS one12(9), e0183214.

Torres, M. J., Adkinson Jr, N. F., Caubet, J. C., Khan, D. A., Kidon, M. I., Mendelson, L., … & Macy, E. (2019). Controversies in drug allergy: beta-lactam hypersensitivity testing. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice7(1), 40-45.NURS 6501 Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes

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