NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Discussion Essay

NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology Week 1 Discussion Essay

Advanced Pathophysiology

Explanation of the Disease

A strep throat/streptococcal pharyngitis is a common infection that affects the throat, tonsils, and pharynx. The most common symptoms of a strep throat are fever, chills, and whited-patched sore throat. Other symptoms may include painful throat, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and a sore, scratchy throat. A sore throat can be classified based on the cause of the infection: viral, bacterial, or non-infectious (Huether & McCance, 2019). The confirmatory test for strep throat entails a throat culture that turns positive for the bacteria. The microorganisms responsible for the onset and development of strep throat initiate a series of cellular damages; hence the body initiates an inflammatory reaction to fight this invasion. This pathology is attributed to the alteration in cellular processes, manifesting as signs and symptoms in the patient.

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Role of Genetics

Genetics plays a role in the development of strep throats in individuals. This is because genetics determines a person’s susceptibility to infection and the immune response. A familial history of the disease predisposes others to develop the disease. Genetics can also influence the type of bacteria that causes the infection. For instance, it plays a role in an individual’s susceptibility to Streptococcus pyogenes (Chauhan et al., 2016). Additionally, genetics can also influence the severity of the infection. Finally, genetics can also influence how quickly an individual recovers from the strep pharyngitis. If a person has a family history of fast recoveries from sore throat, they are more likely to quickly recover from the condition.

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Description of the Patient’s Specific Symptoms

The pathophysiology of strep pharyngitis is inflammation and swelling of the mucous membranes in the throat. This can be caused by various factors, such as infection, allergies, or environmental irritants. Symptoms of strep throat include pain, difficulty swallowing, and a hoarse voice. The patient may also have a fever, swollen glands, and a sore, red white-patched throat. A patient presenting with these symptoms should be evaluated for the presence of an infection and treated accordingly (Campbell et al., 2018). The patient presents with these symptoms as they are a manifestation of the altered cellular processes attributable to the disease’s pathology as well as an allergic reaction to the administered antibiotic.

Description of Specific Symptoms and Involved Cells

The most common strep pharyngitis symptoms are a scratchy or irritated throat, a hoarse voice, and a cough. A sore throat can also cause fever, headache, and body aches. The invasion of bacteria or viruses causes the inflammation that accompanies the sore throat into the throat’s mucous membranes. The most common bacteria that cause strep throat are group A strep, while the most common virus is rhinovirus (Huether & McCance, 2019). The cells involved in the inflammatory reaction process during a sore throat infection include neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Neutrophils are the most important cell because they play a key role in the body’s defense against infection. Macrophages are responsible for the accumulation of inflammatory cells and the destruction of invading microorganisms. Lymphocytes are responsible for the production of antibodies that fight the infection.

Gender and Genetics

In this case scenario, other characteristics such as gender would not significantly change the anticipated therapeutic responses. Gender has not been regarded as a risk factor or role in the onset and development of strep throat. However, genetics would be a fundamental aspect to consider. For instance, genetic variations in the HLA region would denote an increased susceptibility and recurrence of this disease (Campbell et al., 2018)


Campbell, P. T., Frost, H., Smeesters, P. R., Kado, J., Good, M. F., Batzloff, M., … & Steer, A. (2018). Investigation of group A Streptococcus immune response in an endemic setting, with a particular focus on J8. Vaccine, 36(50), 7618-7624.

Chauhan, S., Kashyap, N., Kanga, A., Thakur, K., Sood, A., & Chandel, L. (2016). Genetic diversity among group A streptococcus isolated from throats of healthy and symptomatic children. Journal of tropical pediatrics, 62(2), 152-157.

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2019). Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, 6e (p. 1864). Elsevier.

Essay Instructions

NURS 6501: Advanced Pathophysiology

Week 1 This weeks case scenario for the discussion is provided below:

A 16-year-old boy comes to clinic with chief complaint of sore throat for 3 days. Denies fever or chills. PMH negative for recurrent colds, influenza, ear infections or pneumonias. NKDA or food allergies. Physical exam reveals temp of 99.6 F, pulse 78 and regular with respirations of 18. HEENT normal with exception of reddened posterior pharynx with white exudate on tonsils that are enlarged to 3+. Positive anterior and posterior cervical adenopathy.

Rapid strep test performed in office was positive. His HCP wrote a prescription for amoxicillin 500 mg po q 12 hours x 10 days disp #20. He took the first capsule when he got home and immediately complained of swelling of his tongue and lips, difficulty breathing with audible wheezing. 911 was called and he was taken to he hospital, where he received emergency treatment for his allergic reaction.

Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided.

Include the following in your explanation:

  • The role genetics plays in the disease.
  • Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
  • The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
  • The cells that are involved in this process.
  • How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.

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